Russian choral music of the X-XVI centuries
Russian choral music of the 10th – 16th centuries is an important layer that serves as the basis for the further development of Russian music and culture as a whole. At the previous stage of development – in ancient Russia – folk art played a dominant role in society, since developed secular forms of professional music simply did not exist. Even among the upper feudal layers and in the prince’s court, one could hear folk songs distributed by representatives of song traditions – buffoons. DEVELOPMENT OF SPIRITUAL SINGING Everything has changed with the adoption of Christianity as the state religion in 988 and, as a result, the strengthening of ties with Byzantium. These events greatly influenced the further cultural development of our state. In contrast to folk song, church music developed, which at first was subject to the strong influence of Byzantium. Spiritual chants were recorded in Church Slavonic. This first stage of professional singing is evidenced by the preserved ancient musical hook manuscripts of the late 11th – 13th centuries, which still cannot be accurately deciphered. Together with Christianity, the temple singing system was also borrowed – osmoglasie, the beginning of which was the custom to perform chants in a special voice in each of the 8 days of Easter. A little later, this custom spread to 8 weeks of the holiday period. “Come worship” is an example of a famous notation. Over time, the entire system of church music was modified, as a result of which ancient Russian art acquired its original form – a famous singing or a famous chant, which developed as part of the disagreement. The famous chant was based on chants – short motives in the tertz or quart range. The proverbial chorus included 3-4 such tunes. The melody of the znamenny chant was smooth, wavy and one-voice. It was performed only by the male choir in unison. Branch from the famous singing was condacar singing, the creator of which is Roman Sladkopevets. These are festive spiritual chants with a lot of melodic decorations and long chants of syllables. The refrain was specified already in the course of singing. PEOPLE’S SINGLING CREATIVITY As a result of civil wars and the subsequent capture of Russia by Khan Batu, the center of culture of the state turned out to be the independent and very wealthy trading city of Novgorod, which became the center of merrymaking. From this moment, folk singing takes on a special role. The epic genre is widely spread – epic, glorifying heroes and moral and ethical folk ideals. After the final victory over the Mongol-Tatar yoke and the reunification of Russian lands around Moscow in the 15th century. begins a new stage in the development of domestic art and culture. In folk art, the epic is replaced by a historical song, which tells about real heroes and events. A lyrical song also appears, the hallmarks of which were the improvisational nature of the tunes, as well as the depth and emotionality of the images. It is with the lyric song that the emergence of the Russian choral sub-vocal polyphony is associated. THE COLOR OF THE CHOIR CULTURE OF RUSSIA In the capital of Russia at the court of Ivan III, a choir of sovereign singing clerks was established, constantly accompanying the tsar and singing during palace ceremonies and in cathedrals. At this time, variants of the znamenny chant appear, such as the demene and traveling chants. “Singers on the Choir” – a painting by artist V.E. Makovsky’s By 1441, the first mention of the demine chants. Their repertoire is individual chants of Russian church singing books: Household, Oktoikh and Irmologiya, Holidays. In the future, this type of hymns became widespread in polyphony. The most striking master of such singing is Vasily Rogov. The travel chant was used in stichira, and later in everyday life. For a long time this chant was considered the pinnacle of church singing. It was based on altered hymns of the znamenny chant. Long notes and a special rhythmic tread similar to a dotted line gave the character of a slow solemnity to this form of singing. Traveling chants were performed during the procession, the ceremonial entry of the clergy into the altar, or during a procession to the sources. Their content was elusive because of the great latitude of the chant. Variants of chants related to personal creativity or singing traditions also began to appear. An example of this is the Kiev, Yaroslavl, Vladimir chants, as well as Christians and bast baskets (by the names of the authors) chants. At the same time, early forms of polyphony appear – 2 and 3, less often 4-voice singing, the so-called lowercase singing. It was quite closely associated with folk music. The combination of lines was called “bottom”, “path”, “top”, “demest”: The path is the leading voice of the chant, and its performers were called travelers. The top was written over the path, and it was performed above the main voice. His tops sang. Under the path was written and executed below the lead – bottom.